The thermal bridge is nothing more than a local area of the thermal envelope, in which there is a discontinuity such that the flow of heat between the inside and the outside is different, almost always greater than the rest of the structures, consequently causing of Cold Points.
The causes can be different, ranging from constructive discontinuities, when using heterogeneous materials, to geometric discontinuity, both easily found at the corners, between the wall and floor or between wall and window frames, but not only!
Often a corner pillar thermal bridge is evident, in beams and much more frequently near balconies, windows or window sills, a sore point is that as the years go by, this anomaly can affect both the performance and durability of the materials used.
The main problem that derives from this is of course the thermal dispersion from inside the inhabited area to the outside, with consequent formation of thermal bridges mildew and condensation, the humidity present in the rooms, meeting a surface with lower temperature, changes in status , or turns into water, thus giving rise to condensation. Not only molds develop on the surface of the walls, but especially bacteria, which represent not only aesthetic damage, but mainly for health and from a hygienic point of view, also proliferate.
Without the thermal bridges mold and condense goodbye!
Thermal bridges must absolutely be eliminated if we want to obtain a valid energy efficiency from a building, both from the point of view of comfort and from the economic point of view.
In order to cope with this problem, it is important to take into account the calculation of linear thermal bridges, ie those that involve curbs, beams, pillars, window sills and spacers in the windows, we mean the relationship between the increase of the thermal flow and the product between the length of the thermal bridge and the difference in temperature between the environments separated by the structure being analyzed.
Equally important is the calculation of flat thermal bridges, a method that is applicable to some types of existing housing; the thermal exchange through bridges, once was determined in a flat-rate manner, according to some formulas, today this procedure has been replaced by the obligation to calculate thermal bridges only in an analytical and detailed way.